In Saudi-Arabien sind die Rechte der Frauen eingeschränkt, das Land hat die UN-Frauenrechtskonvention am 7. Juni Seit diesem Sonntag können in Saudi-Arabien Frauen endlich selbst Auto fahren . Das Könighaus erwartet sich neben mehr Zufriedenheit unter. Eine Frau aus Saudi-Arabien postete ein Bild von sich auf Twitter. Sie steht auf einem Bürgersteig; Sonnenbrille, langer Wollmantel, darunter ein weites, buntes .
Saudi Arabien Frauen Video11 unglaubliche Verbote für Frauen in Saudi-Arabien Eine strikte Visumpolitik begleitet dieses Programm. Gibt es eine Möglichkeit, den Personalausweis für meinen Sohn trotzdem zu beantragen? Wir suchen etwas wilderes mit einer Kombination aus Musik, Humor und Tanz. Da der Kindergarten aber geschlossen hat, hatte sie sich letztes Jahr in einem neuen Kindergarten beworben und wurde auch genommen. Er hat Mitglieder, die vier Jahre lang diese Position bekleiden. Die konservativen Mitglieder und damit die Mehrheit, versuchen die Frauen auszugrenzen und blocken ihre Initiativen. Oder habe ich die Dimension des Skandals einfach nicht erfasst? Dadurch soll sicherherstellt werden, dass Frauen Unterhalt von ihren Ex-Männern einfordern können. Homeday Jetzt passenden Immobilienmakler in Ihrer Region finden. Dies geschieht in der Regel mit einer Abaya oder einem Hidschab. Bei Herrmanns dahoam Bayern überleben oder: Nahezu überall in der Welt wäre das nichts aufregendes, eher eine ganz banale Sache. März verbrannten in Mekka fünfzehn Mädchen, die versucht hatten, aus einer brennenden Schule zu entkommen.
Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. Egypt protests could spread to other countries. USAs Library of Congress. Saudi Arabian National Guard.
Arms Sale to Saudi Arabia]. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. A history by Charles Gardner. The Islamic Quest for Nuclear Weapons. The Wall Street Journal.
Japan International Cooperation Agency. Bureau of Labor Studies. Twilight in the Desert: The Saudi Arabian Economy 2 udg. When privatization goes wrong.
Opportunities for Hong Kong. Hong Kong Trade Development Council. Saudi dissidents turn to YouTube to air their frustrations. A foreign Saudi plot to expose foreign poverty in foreign Saudi.
Education in Saudi Arabia. The Chronicle of Higher Education. This medieval Saudi education system must be reformed.
Changing the Way Saudis Learn. SR9 billion Tatweer project set to transform education. Airline Network News and Analysis. Shipping Ports in Saudi Arabia.
Out of the comfort zone. Gulf Labour Markets and Migration. Saudi authorities erect barriers on Yemeni border. Amnesty International calls for end to arrests and expulsions.
The Persecution of Ahmadis. Terrorism Monitor The Jamestown Foundation 3 Federation of American Scientists. Saudi Arabia extends hand of friendship to Pope.
On the political situation of Islam in Germany". The State as an Actor in Religion Policy: Policy Cycle and Governance. Saudi princes throw parties boasting drink, drugs and sex.
Saudi Arabia Redefines the Weekend. The Cradle of Islam 3 udg. Saudi-Arabiens ambassade i USA. The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage.
Saudi Destruction of Muslim Historical Sites. Shame of the House of Saud: Islamic heritage lost as Makkah modernises. Center for Islamic Pluralism.
Media in the Service of King Abdullah. OK for young girls to wed. Saudi Folk Music - Alive and Well. With Work by 12 Authors. Is the Arab world ready for a reading revolution?
International Prize for Arabic Fiction. Artists Out among the Stars. Art in Saudi Arabia: Appetite fuels public displays. Dammam Theater Festival gives momentum to Saudi theater movement.
Wadjda director Haifaa Al Mansour. Architectural Heritage in Saudi Arabia: From the Dynasty to the Nation. Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Social events are largely predicated on the separation of men and women; the mixing of non-kin men and women at parties or the like is extremely rare and limited to some of the modernist Western-educated families.
Most Saudi homes have one entrance for men and another for women. For non-related males to enter the female sections of a Saudi home is a violation of family honour.
Private space is associated with women while the public space, such as the living room, is reserved for men. Traditional house designs also use high walls, compartmentalized inner rooms, and curtains to protect the family and particularly women from the public.
Moreover, sex segregation is expected in public. In restaurants, banks and other public places in Saudi Arabia, women are required to enter and exit through special doors.
Non-mahram women and men must minimize social interaction. Companies traditionally have been expected to create all-female areas if they hire women.
Public transportation is segregated. Public places such as beaches and amusement parks are also segregated, sometimes by time, so that men and women attend at different hours.
Segregation is particularly strict in restaurants, since eating requires removal of the veil. Most restaurants in Saudi Arabia have "family" and "bachelor" sections, the latter for unmarried men or men without a family to accompany.
Women or men with their families have to sit in the family section. In the families section, diners are usually seated in separate rooms or behind screens and curtains.
Waiters are expected to give time for women to cover up before entering, although this practice is not always followed. Restaurants typically bar entrance to women who come without their husbands or mahram, although if they are allowed in, it will be to the family section.
Women are barred from waitressing, except at a few women-only restaurants. Western companies often enforce Saudi religious regulations in restaurants, which has prompted some Western activists to criticise those companies.
Exceptions to segregation rules sometimes include hospitals, medical colleges, and banks. The number of mixed-gender workplaces has increased since King Abdullah was crowned, although they are still not common.
As a practical matter, gender mixing is fairly common in parts of daily life. Women customarily take taxis driven by men.
Many households have maids, who mix with the unrelated men of the households. The opening of the first co-educational university in caused a debate over segregation.
A prominent cleric argued that segregation cannot be grounded in Sharia. He suggested those who advocate it are hypocrites: Mixing was part of normal life for the Ummah Muslim world and its societies Those who prohibit the mixing of the genders actually live it in their real lives, which is an objectionable contradiction as every fair-minded Muslim should follow Shariah judgments without excess or negligence.
In many Muslim houses—even those of Muslims who say mixing is haram forbidden —you can find female servants working around unrelated males.
In Khamisa Mohammad Sawadi, a year-old woman, was sentenced to 40 lashes and imprisonment for allowing a man to deliver bread to her directly in her home.
Sawadi, a non-citizen, was deported. In , a clerical adviser to the Royal court and Ministry of Justice issued a fatwa suggesting that women should provide breast milk to their employed drivers thereby making them relatives a concept known as Rada.
The fatwa was ridiculed by women campaigners. As part of its reform drive, the kingdom lifted the prohibition of women entering sports stadiums.
Women were previously barred by rules of segregation in public. The women were segregated from the male-only sections, and were seated in the "family section".
There are certain limitations to women doing business in the KSA. Although now able to drive motor vehicles, women are still required to have men swear for them in a court of law.
As real estate investor Loulwa al-Saidan complained,. For me to go to any government agency or to the court to buy or sell property, as a woman I am obligated to bring two men as witnesses to testify to my identity, and four male witnesses to testify that the first two are credible witnesses, and actually know me.
Where is any woman going to find six men to go with her to the court?! According to the International Labour Organization , Saudi women constitute When foreign expatriate workers are included in the total, the percentage of working Saudi women drops further to 6.
Employment for women has a number of restrictions under Saudi law and culture. According to the Saudi Labor Minister Dr. Ghazi Al-Qusaibi speaking in Women are allowed to work only in capacities in which they can serve women exclusively; there must be no contact or interaction with the opposite gender.
Most working women, however, out of necessity and practicality travel to work without a male relative and are alone with a driver. Almost all of these women had college and graduate degrees, and were employed either in schools, where men were not permitted to teach girls; or in hospitals, because conservative families prefer that female doctors and nurse treat their wives, sisters, and daughters.
The banks employ women exclusively for every position except for the guards posted at the door to see that no men enter by mistake.
While the Labor Minister Al-Qusaibi stressed the need for women to stay at home he also stated that "there is no option but to start [finding] jobs for the millions of women" in Saudi Arabia.
Many Saudi women also disliked discussing the subject of their undergarments with male shop clerks. The decrees came at "the height of the Arab Spring " and were "widely interpreted" by activists as an attempt to preempt "pro-democracy protests.
In November , religious police signed a letter stating that female employment was causing such a drastic increase in instances of ikhtilat , that "their job was becoming impossible.
When women do work jobs also held by men, they often find it difficult to break into full-time work with employee benefits like allowances, health insurance and social security.
According to a report in the Saudi Gazette , an employer told a female reporter that her health insurance coverage did not include care for childbirth, but that of a male employee included such coverage for his wife.
Saudi women are now seen developing professional careers as doctors, teachers and even business leaders, a process described by in by ABC News as "painfully slow.
Saudi Arabia opened some non-combat military jobs to women in February Allowing women to have greater visibility both in the armed forces and in other sectors not only promises to help diversify the economy, but could also help shift popular gender perceptions more broadly.
The quality of education is lower for females than males. Curricula and textbooks are updated less frequently, and teachers tend to be less qualified.
At the higher levels, males have better research facilities. Public education in Saudi Arabia is sex-segregated at all levels, and in general females and males do not attend the same school.
Religious belief about gender roles and the perception that education is more relevant for men has resulted in fewer educational opportunities for women.
Traditionally, women have been excluded from studying engineering, pharmacy , architecture, and law. Saudi women can also study any subject they wish while abroad.
Women are encouraged to study for service industries or social sciences. Education, medicine, public administration, natural sciences, social sciences, and Islamic studies are deemed appropriate for women.
Women attend classes with men, drive on campus, and are not required to veil themselves. Classes are taught in English.
The opening of the university caused public debate. Al-Ghamdi said that hadith , the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, makes no references to gender segregation, and mixing is therefore permitted under Sharia.
There were many calls for and rumors of his dismissal. Technology is a central part of higher education for women.
Since there are few female lecturers, some universities use videoconferencing to have male professors teach female students without face-to-face contact.
The drop-out rate of girls increases around puberty, as they drop out of school upon marriage. Saudi Arabia was one of the few countries in the Olympics without a female delegation—although female athletes do exist.
In June , the Saudi Arabian Embassy in London announced that female athletes would compete in the Olympics in in London, England for the first time.
In , the Saudi government sanctioned sports for girls in private schools for the first time. In their article, "Saudi Arabia to let women into sports stadiums," Emanuella Grinberg and Jonny Hallam explain how the conservative Saudi adhere to the strictest interpretation of Sunni in the world.
Under their guardianship system, women can not travel or play sports without permission from their male guardians. Some of these strict rules in Saudi Arabia have started to change.
The Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman allowed women in every part of Saudi society to practice and ask for their rights. They were seated in a specific section for families.
Women must show the signed permission from a mahram close male relative—husband, son, father, uncle or grandson before she is free to travel, even inside Saudi Arabia.
Many of the laws controlling women apply to citizens of other countries who are relatives of Saudi men. Foreign-citizen women married to Saudi men, adult foreign-citizen women who are the unmarried daughters of Saudi fathers, and foreign-citizen boys under the age of 21 with a Saudi father.
In , Saudi women were first allowed to ride bicycles, although only around parks and other "recreational areas. Until June , women were not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia, the only country in the world at the time with such a restriction.
Saudi Arabia has had no written ban on women driving, but Saudi law requires citizens to use a locally issued license while in the country. Such licenses had not been issued to women, making it effectively illegal for women to drive.
Critics rejected the ban on driving on the grounds that: On 6 November , 47 Saudi women, with valid licenses issued in other countries, drove the streets of Riyadh in protest of the ban on Saudi women drivers.
The women were suspended from jobs, had their passports confiscated, and were told not to speak to the press.
About a year after the protest, they returned to work and recovered their passports, but they were kept under surveillance and passed over for promotions.
In , advocates for the right of women to drive in Saudi Arabia collected about 1, signatures, hoping to persuade King Abdullah to lift the ban, but they were unsuccessful.
King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia said that he thought women would drive when the society was ready for it: I believe strongly in the rights of women.
My mother is a woman. My sister is a woman. My daughter is a woman. My wife is a woman. I believe the day will come when women will drive.
In fact if you look at the areas of Saudi Arabia, the desert, and in the rural areas, you will find that women do drive.
The issue will require patience. In time I believe that it will be possible. I believe that patience is a virtue. And I hope that every woman that remains fighting for her rights receives them soon.
In September , a woman from Jeddah was sentenced to ten lashes by whip for driving a car. Previously when women were found driving they would normally be questioned and let go after they signed a pledge not to drive again.
Women are generally discouraged from using public transport. It is technically forbidden, but unenforced, for women to take taxis or hire private drivers, as it results in khalwa illegal mixing with a non- mahram man.
Where it is allowed, they must use a separate entrance and sit in a back section reserved for women;  however, the bus companies with the widest coverage in Riyadh and Jeddah do not allow women at all.
In early , the government began considering a proposal to create a nationwide women-only bus system. Starting in , ride-hailing company Careem started business in Saudi Arabia, with Uber arriving in the country in Women account for four-fifths of passengers for these ride-hailing companies.
The Saudi government has also supported these initiatives as a means of reducing unemployment and in its Vision initiative, has invested equity in both companies.
Ride-hailing has improved mobility for women and also promoted employment participation among them with its improved transport flexibility.
Saudi Arabia is a monarchy, with a Consultative Assembly shura of lawmakers appointed by the king. Prior to a September announcement by King Abdullah only men 30 years of age and older could serve as lawmakers.
According to his September announcement, women can now be appointed to the Consultative Assembly. In three women were named as deputy chairpersons of three committees.
They campaigned for the right to do so in the municipal elections, attempting unsuccessfully to register as voters. Women are allowed to hold position on boards of chambers of commerce.
In , two women were elected to the board of the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry. In court, the testimony of one man equals that of two women.
Female parties to court proceedings generally must deputize male relatives to speak on their behalf. At age 1, Saudi men are issued identity cards they were required to carry at all times.
Women had to produce two male relations to confirm their identity. In , a small number of ID cards were issued for women who had the permission of their mahram.
The cards were issued to the mahram, not the women, and explained by the government as a way to fight forgery and fraud.
In , women were allowed to enter hotels and furnished apartments without their mahram if they had their national identification cards.
Women do not need male permission to apply for the card, but do need it to travel abroad. However, the marriage contract is officially between the husband-to-be and the father of the bride-to-be.
Neither a man nor a woman can marry a non-Saudi citizen without official permission. Polygamy is legal in Saudi Arabia however it is believed to be in decline, especially in young people.
Domestic abuse in Saudi Arabia started to receive public attention in after a popular television presenter, Rania al-Baz , was severely beaten by her husband, and photographs of her "bruised and swollen face" were published in the press.
Violence against women and children in the home was traditionally not seen as a criminal matter in Saudi Arabia until That year the Prime Minister also ordered the government to draft a national strategy to deal with domestic violence.
In August , the Saudi cabinet approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offense for the first time. The law criminalizes psychological and sexual abuse , as well as physical abuse.
It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer.
There are no laws defining the minimum age for marriage in Saudi Arabia. Most religious authorities have justified the marriage of girls as young as nine and boys as young as fifteen.
It also negatively affects their health as they are at greater risk of dying from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.
A news report documented the case of Shareefa, an abandoned child-bride. Shareefa was married to an year-old man when she was Her husband divorced her a few months after the marriage without her knowledge, and abandoned her at the age of The mother is attempting legal action, arguing that "Shareefa is now 21, she has lost more than 10 years of her life, her chance for an education, a decent marriage and normal life.
Who is going to take responsibility for what she has gone through? Female genital cutting is reported as rare, possibly occurring among minorities such as African immigrants.
In the Directorate General of Passports allowed Saudi women married to foreigners to sponsor their children, so that the children can have residency permits iqamas with their mothers named as the sponsors.
Iqamas also grant children the right to work in the private sector in Saudi Arabia while on the sponsorship of their mothers, and allow mothers to bring their children living abroad back to Saudi Arabia if they have no criminal records.
Foreign men married to Saudi women were also granted the right to work in the private sector while on the sponsorship of their wives on condition that the title on their iqamas should be written as "husband of a Saudi wife" and that they should have valid passports enabling them to return to their homes at any time.
Legally, children belong to their father, who has sole guardianship. If a divorce takes place, women may be granted custody of their young children until they reach the age of seven.
Older children are often awarded to the father or the paternal grandparents. Women cannot confer citizenship to children born to a non-Saudi Arabian father.
The inheritance share of women in Saudi is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled. The Quran states that daughters should inherit half as much as sons.
Under Sharia law, generally enforced by the government, the courts will punish a rapist with anything from flogging to execution.
As there is no penal code in Saudi Arabia, there is no written law which specifically criminalizes rape or prescribes its punishment.
There is no prohibition against spousal or statutory rape. Migrant women, often working as domestic helpers, represent a particularly vulnerable group and their living conditions are sometimes slave-like and include physical oppression and rape.
In some cases, victims of sexual assault are punished for khalwa, being alone with an unrelated male, prior to the assault. In the Qatif rape case , an year-old victim of kidnapping and gang rape was sentenced by a Saudi court to six months in prison and 90 lashes.
She was also punished for trying to influence the court through the media. According to Human Rights Watch, one of the rapists filmed the assault with his mobile phone but the judges refused to allow it as evidence.
The United Nations criticized social attitudes and the system of male guardianship, which deter women from reporting crimes.
The UN report argued that women are prevented from escaping abusive environments because of their lack of legal and economic independence.
They are further oppressed, according to the UN, by practices surrounding divorce and child custody, the absence of a law criminalizing violence against women, and inconsistencies in the application of laws and procedures.
The case prompted Egyptian-American journalist Mona Eltahawy to comment "What kind of God would punish a woman for rape? That is a question that Muslims must ask of Saudi Arabia because unless we challenge the determinedly anti-women teachings of Islam in Saudi Arabia, that kingdom will always get a free pass.
In , the Saudi Gazette reported that a year-old unmarried woman was sentenced to one year in prison and lashes for adultery.
She had been gang-raped, become pregnant, and tried unsuccessfully to abort the fetus. The flogging was postponed until after the delivery. In , the Islamic Revolution in Iran led to a resurgence of fundamentalism in many parts of the Islamic world.
Fundamentalists sought to repel Westernization, and governments sought to defend themselves against revolution. In Saudi Arabia, fundamentalists occupied the Grand Mosque Masjid al-Haram and demanded a more conservative Islamic state, including "an end of education of women.
Newspapers were discouraged from publishing images of women; the Interior Ministry discouraged women from employment, including expatriates.
Westview Press, Boulder , S. Januar , abgerufen am Eine kleine Revolution in Saudi-Arabien. Dezember , abgerufen am Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons, Hopes to Work With Diverse Group.
Washington Post , DW World , Dezember , abgerufen am 5. Februar , abgerufen am Frau wegen "Hexerei" hingerichtet.
April , abgerufen am 6. Juli , abgerufen am 5. Der Standard , The Global Gender Gap Report Saudi-Arabien entdeckt das Frauenwahlrecht.
Zeit Online , 1. Woman Wins Battle for Neighborhood Park. Deutscher Rettungswagenfahrer in Saudi-Arabien: Vergewaltigungen, ausgesetzte Babys, verhungerte Bauarbeiter — alles Alltag.
Juni , abgerufen am Engagiert im Dienste der Frauen. September im Internet Archive In: Saudi Arabia job growth likely as woman driver ban ends.
Oktober , abgerufen am 5. Oktober , abgerufen am Januar , abgerufen am 5. September , abgerufen am Juni , abgerufen am 4. Religionspolizei erlaubt Frauen das Radfahren.
April , abgerufen am Cheney bettelt in Riad. Saudi-Arabien wirkt in arabischer Welt destabilisierend. Dezember , abgerufen am 2. BND warnt vor Saudi-Arabien.
Dezember , abgerufen am 8. November , abgerufen am 5. Arabische Liga kritisiert in Kairo Hamas und Fatah scharf. Saudi-Arabien soll nicht an Nahost-Konferenz teilnehmen In: Dezember Memento vom 3.
August im Webarchiv archive. Werben um Teilnahme Riads an der Nahost-Konferenz. Saudi-Arabien schickt Waffen n-tv. September , abgerufen am 5.
Januar , abgerufen am 3. Januar , abgerufen am 4. Who-we-are , abgerufen 8. SIPRI, abgerufen am 5. Keine Waffenexporte mehr nach Saudi-Arabien?
GTAI — Wirtschaftsdaten kompakt. Global Competitiveness Index — FES Reportage September Saudis gegen den Euro. Die Presse , Atomboom im Nahen Osten.
Berliner Zeitung , Reformen in Saudi Arabien: Mit der Handschrift des zweiten Kronprinzen. Data, abgerufen am Juli amerikanisches Englisch.
Status und Aussichten der saudi-arabischen Wirtschaft. September , ISBN Abdullah ordnet neues Wochenende an Memento vom Juni auf WebCite abgerufen am Juli , abgerufen am Februar Memento vom US-Kette mit erstem Kino seit 35 Jahren orf.
April , abgerufen 5. Juli Memento vom Women in Saudi Arabia: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , Mitglieder der Arabischen Liga.
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Abd al-Aziz al Saud.